The earliest British settlers called the natives Eora people.
"Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. The principal language groups were Darug, Guringai, and Dharawal.
Conditions in the colony were not conducive to the development of a thriving new metropolis, but the more regular arrival of ships and the beginnings of maritime trade (such as wool) helped to lessen the burden of isolation.
Between 17, convicts and their jailers made up the majority of the population; in one generation, however, a population of emancipated convicts who could be granted land began to grow.
The municipal council of Sydney was incorporated in 1842 and became Australia's first city.
its notable natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park and the Royal Botanic Garden.
Roads, bridges, wharves, and public buildings were constructed using convict labour and by 1822 the town had banks, markets, and well-established thoroughfares.
Part of Macquarie's effort to transform the colony was his authorisation for convicts to re-enter society as free citizens.
Lieutenant James Cook first landed at Kurnell in 1770, when navigating his way up the east coast of Australia on his ship, HMS Endeavour.Phillip sent exploratory missions in search of better soils and fixed on the Parramatta region as a promising area for expansion and moved many of the convicts from late 1788 to establish a small township, which became the main centre of the colony's economic life, leaving Sydney Cove only as an important port and focus of social life.Poor equipment and unfamiliar soils and climate continued to hamper the expansion of farming from Farm Cove to Parramatta and Toongabbie, but a building programme, assisted by convict labour, advanced steadily.The colony was not founded on the principles of freedom and prosperity.Maps from this time show no prison buildings; the punishment for convicts was transportation rather than incarceration, but serious offences were penalised by flogging and hanging.