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It explores how women, peasants, and orphaned street children responded to Bolshevik attempts to remake the family, and how their opinions and experiences in turn were used by the state to meet its own needs.

CAMBRIDGE RUSSIAN, SOVIET AND POST-SOVIET STUDIES Editorial Board JUDY BARR, RON HILL, MICHAEL KASER, PAUL LEWIS, MARGOT LIGHT, FRED SINGLETON, STEPHEN WHITE The National Association for Soviet and East European Studies exists for the purpose of promoting study and research on the social sciences as they relate to the Soviet Union and the countries of Eastern Europe.

Mutual affection and respect would replace legal and economic dependence as the basis for relations between the sexes.

A generation of Soviet lawmakers thus crafted legislation to liberate women and encourage the "withering away" of the family.

He has been my greatest source of encouragement, my sharpest critic, and always, my "first reader." 1 The origins of the Bolshevik vision: Love unfettered, women free It is a curious fact that with every great revolutionary movement the question of "free love" comes into the foreground. Vo Vfson, 1929, Soviet sociologist2 In October 1918, barely a year after the Bolsheviks had come to power, the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet (VTs IK), the highest legislative body, ratified a complete Code on Marriage, the Family, and Guardianship.

The first retreat: Besprizornost' and socialized child rearing 3.

Arguing vigorously against reformism in the social democratic movement, Lenin held that victorious revolutionaries would have to smash the bourgeois state and create a new state in its place.

Yet the new "dictatorship of the proletariat" would be for the vast majority democratic, its power mobilized solely to eliminate the old exploiters.

Its aim, the suppression of a minority by the majority, would be "so easy, simple, and natural a task," that the people could "suppress the exploiters even with a very simple 'machine.'" In Lenin's words, "since the majority of the people itself suppresses its oppressors, a 'special force' for suppression is no longer necessary!

In this sense the state begins to wither away.1'4 The ideas in The State and Revolution influenced Bolshevik thinking well into the 1930s.

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